conflicts of interest

Intellectual conflicts of interest: Reviewers


Where do journal editors look to find someone to referee your manuscript (in the typical “double blind” review system in academic journals)? One obvious place to look is the reference list in your paper. After all, if you’ve cited them, they must know about the topic of your paper, putting them in a good position to write a useful review. The problem is that if your paper is on a topic of ardent disagreement, and you argue in favor of one side of the debates, then your reference list is likely to include those with actual or perceived conflicts of interest. After all, if someone has a strong standpoint on an issue of some controversy, and a strong interest in persuading others to accept their side, it creates an intellectual conflict of interest, if that person has power to uphold that view. Since your referee is in a position of significant power to do just that, it follows that they have a conflict of interest (COI). A lot of attention is paid to author’s conflicts of interest, but little into intellectual or ideological conflicts of interests of reviewers. At most, the concern is with the reviewer having special reasons to favor the author, usually thought to be indicated by having been a previous co-author. We’ve been talking about journal editors conflicts of interest as of late (e.g., with Mark Burgman’s presentation at the last Phil Stat Forum) and this brings to mind another one.

But is it true that just because a reviewer is put in a position of competing interests (staunchly believing in a position opposed to yours, while under an obligation to provide a fair and unbiased review) that their fairness in executing the latter is compromised? I surmise that your answer to this question will depend on which of two scenarios you imagine yourself in: In the first, you imagine yourself reviewing a paper that argues in favor of a position that you oppose. In the second, you imagine that your paper, which argues in favor of a view, has been sent to a reviewer with a vested interest in opposing that view.

In other words, if the paper argues in favor of a position, call it position X, and you oppose X, I’m guessing you imagine you’d have no trouble giving fair and constructive assessments of arguments in favor of X. You would not dismiss arguments in favor of X, just because you sincerely oppose X. You’d give solid reasons. You’d be much more likely to question if a reviewer, staunchly opposed to position X, will be an unbiased reviewer of your paper in favor of X. I’m not biased, but they are.

I think the truth is that reviewers with a strong standpoint on a controversial issue, are likely to have an intellectual conflict of interest in reviewing a paper in favor of a position they oppose. Recall that it suffices, according to standard definitions of an individual having a COI, that reasonable grounds exist to question whether their judgments and decisions can be unbiased. (For example, investment advisors avoid recommending stocks they themselves own, to avoid a conflict of interest.) If this is correct, does it follow that opponents of a contentious issue should not serve as reviewers of papers that take an opposite stance?  I say no because an author can learn a lot from a biased review about how to present their argument in the strongest possible terms, and how to zero in on the misunderstandings and confusions underlying objections to the view. Authors will almost surely not persuade such a reviewer by means of a revised paper, but they will be in possession of an argument that may enable them to persuade others.

A reviewer who deeply opposes position X will indeed, almost certainly, raise criticisms of a paper that favors X, but it does not follow that they are not objective or valid criticisms. Nevertheless, if all the reviewers come from this group, the result is still an unbalanced and unfair assessment, especially in that–objective or not–the critical assessment is more likely to accentuate the negative. If the position X happens to be currently unpopular, and opposing X the “received” position extolled by leaders of associations, journals, and institutions, then restricting reviewers to those opposed to X would obstruct intellectual progress. Progress comes from challenging the status quo and the tendency of people to groupthink and to jump on the bandwagon endorsed by many influential thought leaders of the day. Thus it would make sense for authors to have an opportunity to point out ahead of time to journal editors–who might not be aware of the particular controversy–the subset of references with a vested intellectual interest against the view for which they are arguing. If the paper is nevertheless sent to those reviewers, a judicious journal editor should weigh very heavily the author’s retorts and rejoinders. [1]

Here’s an example from outside of academia–the origins of the Coronavirus. The president of an organization that is directly involved with and heavily supported by funds for experimenting on coronaviruses, Peter Daszak, has a vested interest in blocking hypotheses of lab leaks or lab errors. Such hypotheses, if accepted, would have huge and adverse effects on that research and its regulation. When he is appointed to investigate Coronavirus origins, he has a conflict of interest. See this post.

Molecular biologist, Richard Ebright, one of the scientists to Call for a Full and Unrestricted International Forensic Investigation into the Origins of COVID-19 claims “the fact that the WHO named Daszak as a member of its mission, and the fact that the WHO retained Daszak as a member of its mission after being informed of his conflicts of interest, make it clear that the WHO study cannot be considered a credible, independent investigation.” (LINK) If all the reviewers of a paper in support of a lab association come from team Daszak, the paper is scarcely being given a fair shake.

Do you agree? Share your thoughts in the comments.

[1] The problem is compounded by the fact that today there are more journal submissions than ever, and with the difficulty in getting volunteers, there’s pressure on the journal editor not to dismiss the views of referees. My guess is that anonymity doesn’t play a big role most of the time.


Categories: conflicts of interest, journal referees | 12 Comments

ASA to Release the Recommendations of its Task Force on Statistical Significance and Replication

The American Statistical Association has announced that it has decided to reverse course and share the recommendations developed by the ASA Task Force on Statistical Significance and Replicability in one of its official channels. The ASA Board created this group [1] in November 2019 “with a charge to develop thoughtful principles and practices that the ASA can endorse and share with scientists and journal editors.” (AMSTATNEWS 1 February 2020). Some members of the ASA Board felt that its earlier decision not to make these recommendations public, but instead to leave the group to publish its recommendations on its own, might give the appearance of a conflict of interest between the obligation of the ASA to represent the wide variety of methodologies used by its members in widely diverse fields, and the advocacy by some members who believe practitioners should stop using the term “statistical significance” and end the practice of using p-value thresholds in interpreting data [the Wasserstein et al. (2019) editorial]. I think that deciding to publicly share the new Task Force recommendations is very welcome, given especially that the Task Force was appointed to avoid just such an apparent conflict of interest. Past ASA President, Karen Kafadar noted:

Many of you have written of instances in which authors and journal editors—and even some ASA members—have mistakenly assumed this [Wasserstein et al. (2019)] editorial represented ASA policy. The mistake is understandable: The editorial was co-authored by an official of the ASA.

… To address these issues, I hope to establish a working group that will prepare a thoughtful and concise piece … without leaving the impression that p-values and hypothesis tests…have no role in ‘good statistical practice’. (K. Kafadar, President’s Corner, 2019, p. 4)

Thus the Task Force on Statistical Significance and Replicability was born. Meanwhile, its recommendations remain under wraps. The one principle mentioned in Kafadar’s JSM presentation is that there be a disclaimer on all publications, articles, editorials authored by ASA staff, making it clear that the views presented are theirs and not the associations. It is good that we can now count on seeing the original recommendations. Were they only to have appeared in a distinct publication, perhaps in a non-statistics journal, we would never actually know if we were getting to see the original recommendations, or some modified version of them.

For a blogpost that provides the background to this episode, see “Why hasn’t the ASA board revealed the recommendations of its new task force on statistical significance and replicability?”


[1] Members of the ASA Task Force on Statistical Significance and Replicability

Linda Young, National Agricultural Statistics Service and University of Florida (Co-Chair)
Xuming He, University of Michigan (Co-Chair)
Yoav Benjamini, Tel Aviv University
Dick De Veaux, Williams College (ASA Vice President)
Bradley Efron, Stanford University
Scott Evans, The George Washington University (ASA Publications Representative)
Mark Glickman, Harvard University (ASA Section Representative)
Barry Graubard, National Cancer Institute
Xiao-Li Meng, Harvard University
Vijay Nair, Wells Fargo and University of Michigan
Nancy Reid, University of Toronto
Stephen Stigler, The University of Chicago
Stephen Vardeman, Iowa State University
Chris Wikle, University of Missouri





Kafadar, K. Presidents Corner “The Year in Review … And More to Come” AMSTATNEWS 1 December 2019.

“Highlights of the November 2019 ASA Board of Directors Meeting”, AMSTATNEWS 1 January 2020.

Kafadar, K. “Task Force on Statistical Significance and Replicability Created”, AMSTATNEWS 1 February 2020.

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